Pyelonephritis is caused by a bacterium or virus infecting the kidneys. Though many bacteria and viruses can cause pyelonephritis, the bacterium Escherichia coli is often the cause. Bacteria and viruses can move to the kidneys from the bladder or can be carried through the bloodstream from other parts of the body. A UTI in the bladder that does not move to the kidneys is called cystitis.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis can vary depending on a person’s age and may include the following:
- back, side, and groin pain
- frequent, painful urination
Nursing Diagnosis : Acute Pain related to infection of the kidneys
Goal: pain in the kidneys is reduced
Expected outcomes: No pain on urination, no pain on percussion pelvis.
Interventions and Rationale
1. Assess the intensity, location, and factors that aggravate or relieve pain.
R /: Pain is a great sign of infection.
2. Give adequate rest and activity levels that can be tolerant.
R /: Clients can rest and muscles can relax.
3. Encourage drinking plenty of 2-3 liters if no contraindications
R /: To assist clients in urination.
4. Give analgesics according to the treatment program.
R /: Analgesic block the path of pain.
5. Monitor urine output to changes in color, odor and voiding patterns, input and output every 8 hours and monitor the results of urinalysis repeated.
R: To identify indications of progress or deviations from expected results.
6. Record the location, the length of the intensity scale (1-10) spread pain.
R /: To help evaluate the place of obstruction and cause pain.
7. Provide comfortable action, bleak back rub, the rest.
R /: Improve relaxation, reduce muscle tension.
8. Assist or encourage the use of focused relaxation breathing.
R /: Helps redirect the attention and for muscle relaxation.
9. Give perineal care.
R /: To prevent contamination of the urethra.
Nursing Diagnosis: Anxiety related to lack of information about the disease process, prevention methods, and home care instructions.
Goal: Anxiety is reduced
Expeected Outcome : Clients say taste anxiety diminished
Interventions and Rationale:
1. Assess the level of anxiety.
R /: To determine the severity of the client's anxiety.
2. Give the client the opportunity to express feelings.
R /: In order for the client to have passion and want empathy to care and treatment.
3. Give support to the client.
4. Give spiritual encouragement.
5. Give an explanation of the illness.
R /: In order to fully understand the client's illness experiences.