Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes serious health complications including renal (kidney) failure, heart disease, stroke, and blindness.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are greater for some ethnicities, as mentioned before. Furthermore, those people who have a family history of type 2 diabetes, who are overweight or inactive also face a greater risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus affects a variety of people of all races, ages and nations. It is unkown why some people develop type 1 diabetes.
It may be linked to environmental factors or a virus however it has been estabilished if there is a family history of type 1 diabetes then there is a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger. The treatment includes changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.
Symptoms of diabetes can develop suddenly (over days or weeks) in previously healthy children or adolescents, or can develop gradually (over several years) in overweight adults over the age of 40. The classic symptoms include feeling tired and sick, frequent urination, excessive thirst, excessive hunger, and weight loss.
Diabetes is suspected based on symptoms. Urine tests and blood tests can be used to confirm a diagnose of diabetes based on the amount of glucose found. Urine can also detect ketones and protein in the urine that may help diagnose diabetes and assess how well the kidneys are functioning. These tests also can be used to monitor the disease once the patient is on a standardized diet, oral medications, or insulin.
Research continues on diabetes prevention and improved detection of those at risk for developing diabetes. While the onset of Type I diabetes is unpredictable, the risk of developing Type II diabetes can be reduced by maintaining ideal weight and exercising regularly. The physical and emotional stress of surgery, illness, pregnancy, and alcoholism can increase the risks of diabetes, so maintaining a healthy lifestyle is critical to preventing the onset of Type II diabetes and preventing further complications of the disease.
There is currently no cure for diabetes. The condition, however, can be managed so that patients can live a relatively normal life. Treatment of diabetes focuses on two goals: keeping blood glucose within normal range and preventing the development of long-term complications. Careful monitoring of diet, exercise, and blood glucose levels are as important as the use of insulin or oral medications in preventing complications of diabetes. In 2003, the American Diabetes Association updated its Standards of Care for the management of diabetes. These standards help manage health care providers in the most recent recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Diabetes Mellitus - 6 Nanda Nursing Diagnosis
1. Fluid Volume Deficit
osmotic diuresis (hyperglycemia).
2. Imbalanced Nutrition, Less Than Body Requirements
poor nutrition intake.
3. Risk for Infection
high glucose levels
reduction in leukocyte function.
4. Knowledge Deficit: about the disease process
related tyo: lack of information.
5. Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
6. Activity Intolerance